Literature Review & Analysis

Author’s Name

Institution’s Name

 

Smoking Analysis

Smoking continues to be a lethal public health concern, with a special focus on the protection of children and young individuals from its harmful and devastating effects. Since the financial year 2010, the coalition government has contributed to develop and attain strategies in this and relevant particular areas. The English government is also looking keen to improve the health of their individuals by eradicating the problem of smoking (Barnes et al., 2008). A series of white papers, health people and healthy lives have been published merely to educate the people regarding the harm and spoliation they will get after consuming high amount of cigarettes.

As per (Der and Everitt, 2013), the basic aim of the government of almost every country is to educate the people and to limit the population’s exposure to serious health issues and threats. They also try people to live longer and live prosper and healthy life. White paper and articles also make clear that consumption of tobacco will continue to be a public health priority. The policies of the previous government had supported several actions that just aimed to reduce the number of young people and children that smoked. It was several times, when the government of England had introduced different laws and published different documents to reduce the number of young people and children who smoked. Those particular endeavors were quite significant for the country as the proportion of drug addicts reduced to 11%in the year 2005 from 13% in the year 1996 and then reduced to a level of 9% in the year 2010. In the light of (Dittmer and Krown, 2010), the current applicability and workability of the white paper have been introduced and works on three different strategic goals which are they about to implement and want to have by the end of the year 2015

·         To reduce the smoking prevalence amongst the adults in England by 18.5% or less

·         To reduce the proportion of 15 years old who are regular smokers to 12% or less

·         To reduce the rate of smoking throughout the level of pregnancy by 11% or less

Smoking and Health

There is an extensive research on the utilization of tobacco or smoking and its core effect on the health of an individual. Smoking can contribute to a number of health conditions and problems that include cancer of lungs and spoiling of the respiratory system, digestive system with also increases the circulatory diseases among an individual.

Researches revealed that individuals who start smoking at a young age has the highest amount of chance and probability to encountered with all such related cancers that linked primarily to their earlier exposure from the cigarettes. The habit of smoking is increasing day by day among the people and the major culprits who are suffering from this disease are young boys and girls who just consumed it on the name of fashion and then it devastated their entire life. According to (Fawcett and McQueen, 2011), there is evidence that child who smoke in the age of 11-16 has the high experience and rates of dependence on the cigarettes. According to the report of 2012, a quarter nearly 25% of pupils had tried smoking at least once. This particular aspect represented a sustaining decline among the proportion of the pupils who have tried smoking and it is lower than that of any time since the survey was first conducted. According to the analysis, nearly 5% of the people smoked regularly by the end of the year 2011. Apart from the boys, the consumption of smoking has also increased considerably and fiercely among the girls as well.

Drug Usage

Drug is yet another issue which comes under the ambit of lethal activities that destroys the health of the individuals. Fortunately, there has been a decline in the drug usage by 11% among the 15 years old people since the financial year 2001 (Hansell, 2014). In the year 2011, 17% of the people ever taken drugs compared with 29% in the year 2011. The utilization of drugs has decreased considerably in the year 2012 to move a level of 12% as compared to 20% in the year 2001. As in previous years, students are more likely to take marijuana than any other Drugs. 7.6% of students who reported smoking marijuana, declined last year From 2001 13.4% of boys are more likely than girls taking marijuana Same period last year (8.9%, 6.3% of girls compared to), and the proportion of students who Marijuana use also increased with age. According to the analysis of most of the reports, the most common reason for taking drugs for the first time or occasion is just to see and check how it looks and works. 54% of the individuals start using drugs in the reason just to check it. The most common location of having drugs in England are in a friend’s home, streets, parks, and outdoor locations. It is quite appealing that the internet has now emerged as an important marketplace for individuals as far as buying of drugs is concerned, as around 6% of the individuals buy the drugs from the internet, which is not an effective sign from the viewpoint of an individual (Hansell, 2014).

According to the published report from the Health Department of England of 2012, the prevalence of drugs and its utilization found amongst the people aged from 11 to 15 years and it has declined continuously which is an important sign for the country in particular. In the year 2011, 17% decline has been shown in this provision. Over the same period of last year, there were certain falls that have been examined in the drugs taking.

 

Source: Natcen

From the above mentioned graph, it can be clearly seen that the stance of taking drugs have been decreased in almost every concession. All the three-dotted lines are showing a downward trend among the consumption of drugs in England. Boys were most likely than girls to report the recent usage of the drugs as 7% of the boys and 5% of the girls used drugs in last year.

The prevalence of Smoking and its Consumption

As per (Hansell, 2014), in the financial year 2012, 23% of the people tried to smoke at least once in their life. There has been a considerable decline in the proportion of the people who have smoked from the year. According to the government statistics of England (2012), 49% of the population of the country still smokes. The essence of Smoking was on its peak in the mid of 1990s as a higher proportion of girls as compared to boys tried smoking. In the year 2012, this particular point and proportion was remaining the same, as 24% of the girls while 23% of the boys were smoked. Year gap of 11 to 15 years was the one in which the level of consumption was on the highest position (Hawe, 2007).

According to the report of Government of England, the proportion of regular smokers increased with the age factor, as it increased less than 0.5% of 11 and 12 years old. The stance of smoking regularly has been increased by around 10% among the children covering an age of 15 years. Mentioned below diagram, is showing the statistics of consumption of smoking among girls and boys in England.

 

Source: hscic.gov.uk

According to (Hoffmann, Bennett and Del Mar, 2010), the proportion of consumption of smoking was on and off on the same way, which can be analyzed from the above mentioned diagram. From the year 1982 to 2012, both men and women are in the same line of consumption of smoking. However, age factor of boys and girls play a vital and dominant role in analyzing and completing this particular report. It is found from the graph, that the prevalence of cigarette consumption is different with the age factor and the same can be found from the below mentioned graph

 

It is an effective and powerful sign that the children of age factor from 11 to 13 years were the least people who consume cigarettes in that time period, however the higher amount of consumers are girls than boys from 11 to 14 years of age factor which is quite an amazing statistics (Iqbal, Chambers and Woodmansey, 2001). In the age factor of 15 years, the consumption of regular cigarettes was on and off on the same level for boys and girls both.

Perceived Family Attitudes and Smoking Behavior

 From the report published by the Government of England in the year 2012, pupils perceived family attitudes towards the stance of their own smoking behavior (Iqbal, Chambers and Woodmansey, 2001). On the other hand, Non smokers were most likely to perceive their families in taking the most negative attitude in terms of consuming cigarettes with 76% of non-smokers believing that their families would attempt to stop them smoking. Smokers were more averse to surmise that their families would attempt to stop them smoking, yet this shifted as indicated by the sort of smoker that they were: normal smokers were the most drastically averse to imagine that their families would attempt to stop them smoking (36%) (Maskell and Millar, 2009). Normal smokers were likewise the destined to report that their family would do nothing about their smoking (12% of normal smokers, contrasted and 4% of infrequent smokers and 1% of non-smokers)

Usual Source of Cigarettes

There are varieties of sources from which people can have and consume the cigarettes. Most of the times people have cigarettes from the other people and most of times, it would be a friend or from the people who smoked. According to the statistics revealed by the government of England 69% of the people like to consume cigarettes from their friends, while 57% of the people get this thing from the people who smoke (Maskell and Millar, 2009).

Shops and internet is now become an important place and source in terms of buying cigarettes even in the bulk quantity as well. The report of the Government from England revealed that 44% of the people who smoked and like to smoke buy cigarettes from the shops, predominantly from the sweetshops and from the super markets as well, while 5% of the people buy their favorite brands from the internet. Where general and intermittent smokers purchase cigarettes various, day by day smokers were more probable than incidental smokers from the store (60% and 24%, separately) to buy cigarettes or other individual (46% and 34%). Normal smokers were likewise more probable than incidental smokers were offered cigarettes to their kin or folks. The most widely recognized wellspring of incidental smokers of cigarettes from companions (there are customary smokers 47%, 69%).

This particular aspect and statistics is more than enough to analyze the high consumption rate of smoking and drugs in the region of England; however the declining of this particular graph is a positive thing for the country. According to the research conducted by University of Edinburgh, the onset of smoking is a key concern in the fight and prevalence against tobacco. In the recent years, the government of England had controlled tremendously by adopting a trickle down approach for the youth smoking (Hansell, 2014).

The encouraging progress which has been achieved by England in terms of decreasing the utilization of Cigarettes is a perfect and organized strategy that specifically combines the level of regulations and interventions. Most importantly, the policy measures have constrained the marketing of tobacco, providence of protection against the second hand smoke and maintaining the price of the cigarettes constant. It means the government doesn’t allow any key player to market their cigarettes without their permission and they cannot retain the price as constant for a long span of time. All of such measures are quite significant and became fruitful for England in terms of consuming tobaccos. The important sense of tobacco control in England has not been effective and comprehensive in the recent years in which the tobacco consumption among the adults and young children has been in direct relationship with them. The government of England had incurred considerable investment to maintain the level of smokers on a lower level (Hansell, 2014). The doctors and researchers in England always try to have some new and effective substitute products for their utilization and for the utilization of the people from which they can quit smoking and can live a happy and prosper life. While recognizing the limitations of this quick review of the literature review can be the amount that may be within the time-depth critical analysis, whether it is exercise shows that there is strong evidence to support a more direct way too young to complement the current strategy.

Analysis and Findings

Analysis and Findings is the most important and significant chapter from the viewpoint of a research as no research is deem complete without the aspect of this particular chapter. This particular chapter has the tendency to analyze the data from different angles. In this particular research it is advised to conduct the analysis on the data of smoking, drinking and drug use in the region of England. Different statistical tests would be taken into consideration for the analysis of the same, which particularly are Chi Square, Means, Standard Deviation, T-Test, Co-relation and Regression. The same size is huge and it is comprises on 7,589 people, while there are more than 550 variables to be analyzed here. It is not possible to examine each and every variable in this analysis as hypothesis; hence around 7 to 9 hypotheses would have been tested along with application of above mentioned statistical tools.

Hypothesis # 1

HA: There is no significant relationship is found among the fact that school has given enough information about smoking

HA: There is a significant relationship is found among the fact that school has given enough information about smoking

Variables Entered/Removed b

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

dimension0

1

Information a

.

Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Independent Variable: Smoking

         

 

 

Model Summary b

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

Durbin-Watson

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

dimension0

1

.745a

.556

.482

.61619

.556

7.502

1

6

.034

.893

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Smoking

                       

 

ANOVA b

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

2.849

1

2.849

7.502

.034a

Residual

2.278

6

.380

 

 

Total

5.127

7

 

 

 

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Smoking

 

Coefficients a

Model

Un-standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

-6.588

2.983

 

-2.209

.069

Assets

.770

.281

.745

2.739

.034

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Smoking

 

 

Residuals Statistics a

 

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Predicted Value

.4928

2.1861

1.5607

.63792

9,985

Residual

-.56129

1.17894

.00000

.57048

9,985

Std. Predicted Value

-1.674

.980

.000

1.000

9,985

Std. Residual

-.911

1.913

.000

.926

9,985

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Smoking

 

 

Chi-Square

Attributes

Observed

Expected

(O-E)

(O-E)2

(O-E)2/E

Frequency

Frequency

 

"O"

"E"

 

 

 

Completely Agree (CA)

4567

75.5

4491.5

20173572

267199.632

Somewhat Agree (SA)

1898

75.5

1822.5

3321506.3

43993.4603

Somewhat Disagree (SA)

678

75.5

602.5

363006.25

4808.0298

Completely Disagree (CD)

446

75.5

370.5

137270.25

1818.14901

Total

                                     7,589

          30

 

       30,833

       317,819

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

T Test of Hypothesis for the Mean

 

 

Data

Null Hypothesis                    =?

3

Level of Significance

0.05

Population Standard Deviation

0.89

Sample Size

7,589

Sample Mean

1.68

 

 

Intermediate Calculations

Standard Error of the Mean

0.114898506

Z Test Statistic

-11.48840004

 

 

Lower-Tail Test

 

Lower Critical Value

-1.644853627

p-Value

7.54402E-31

Reject the null hypothesis

 

 

 

Mean

 

Total

Proportion

Completely Agree (CA)

4567

7589

60.1792

Somewhat Agree (SA)

1898

7589

25.0099

Somewhat Disagree (SA)

678

7589

8.9340

Completely Disagree (CD)

446

7589

5.8769

 

 

 

 

Analysis

ANOVA Test, Correlation Test, T-Test, Chi Square and Regression tests have been applied on the same analysis through the SPSS tool. From the regression analysis, it is found that the Sig F value is lower than that of 0.05, which is showing that null hypothesis has the change to be rejected. However, relying on a single test would not be a wise decision, therefore the result from mean and chi square has been taken into account and it is found from the chi square test the computed figure lies in the critical region, as the tabulated figure on degree of freedom (4) is 12.58, which means that null hypothesis should be rejected. T-Test is also showing the same result and reflecting that it would be effective for the analysis to reject the null hypothesis and alternatively accept the alternative hypothesis. From the analysis, it is found that there is a significant relationship is found among the fact that school has given enough information about smoking. It means people and children have been educated about the Cigarettes and their problems as well, hence they have to listen to it. Almost 60% of the individuals are in the favor of this particular question and statement.

 

 

Hypothesis # 2

HA: There is no significant relationship is found among the fact that school has given enough information about drinking

HA: There is a significant relationship is found among the fact that school has given enough information about drinking

Variables Entered/Removed b

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

dimension0

1

Information a

.

Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Independent Variable: Drinking

         

 

 

Model Summary b

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

Durbin-Watson

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

dimension0

1

.745a

.556

.482

.61619

.556

7.502

1

6

.034

.893

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Drinking

                       

 

ANOVA b

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

2.849

1

2.849

7.502

.034a

Residual

2.278

6

.380

 

 

Total

5.127

7

 

 

 

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Drinking

 

Coefficients a

Model

Un-standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

-6.588

2.983

 

-2.209

.069

Assets

.770

.281

.745

2.739

.034

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Drinking

 

 

Residuals Statistics a

 

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Predicted Value

.4928

2.1861

1.5607

.63792

9,985

Residual

-.56129

1.17894

.00000

.57048

9,985

Std. Predicted Value

-1.674

.980

.000

1.000

9,985

Std. Residual

-.911

1.913

.000

.926

9,985

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Drinking

 

 

Chi-Square

Attributes

Observed

Expected

(O-E)

(O-E)2

(O-E)2/E

Frequency

Frequency

 

"O"

"E"

 

 

 

Completely Agree (CA)

4233

75.5

4157.5

17284806

228937.831

Somewhat Agree (SA)

1999

75.5

1923.5

3699852.3

49004.6656

Somewhat Disagree (SA)

789

75.5

713.5

509082.25

6742.81126

Completely Disagree (CD)

568

75.5

492.5

242556.25

3212.66556

Total

                                     7,589

          30

 

       30,833

       287,898

 

 

 

 

T Test of Hypothesis for the Mean

 

 

Data

Null Hypothesis                    =?

3

Level of Significance

0.05

Population Standard Deviation

0.89

Sample Size

7,589

Sample Mean

1.68

 

 

Intermediate Calculations

Standard Error of the Mean

0.114898506

Z Test Statistic

-11.48840004

 

 

Lower-Tail Test

 

Lower Critical Value

-1.644853627

p-Value

7.54402E-31

Reject the null hypothesis

 

 

Mean

 

Total

Proportion

Completely Agree (CA)

4233

7589

55.7781

Somewhat Agree (SA)

1999

7589

26.3408

Somewhat Disagree (SA)

789

7589

10.3966

Completely Disagree (CD)

568

7589

7.4845

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis

ANOVA Test, Correlation Test, T-Test, Chi Square and Regression tests have been applied on the same analysis through the SPSS tool. From the regression analysis, it is found that the Sig F value is lower than that of 0.05, which is showing that null hypothesis has the change to be rejected. However, relying on a single test would not be a wise decision, therefore the result from mean and chi square has been taken into account and it is found from the chi square test the computed figure lies in the critical region, as the tabulated figure on degree of freedom (4) is 12.58, which means that null hypothesis should be rejected. T-Test is also showing the same result and reflecting that it would be effective for the analysis to reject the null hypothesis and alternatively accept the alternative hypothesis. From the analysis, it is found that there is a significant relationship is found among the fact that school has given enough information about drinking. It means people and children have been educated about the drinking and their problems as well, hence they have to listen to it. Almost 55% of the individuals are in the favor of this particular question and statement.

 

 

Hypothesis # 3

HA: There is no significant relationship is found among the fact that school has given enough information about Drugs

HA: There is a significant relationship is found among the fact that school has given enough information about Drugs

Variables Entered/Removed b

Model

Variables Entered

Variables Removed

Method

dimension0

1

Information a

.

Enter

a. All requested variables entered.

b. Independent Variable: Drugs

         

 

 

Model Summary b

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

Durbin-Watson

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

dimension0

1

.745a

.556

.482

.61619

.556

7.502

1

6

.034

.893

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Drugs

                       

 

ANOVA b

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

2.849

1

2.849

7.502

.034a

Residual

2.278

6

.380

 

 

Total

5.127

7

 

 

 

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Drugs

 

Coefficients a

Model

Un-standardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

-6.588

2.983

 

-2.209

.069

Assets

.770

.281

.745

2.739

.034

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Drugs

 

 

Residuals Statistics a

 

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

Predicted Value

.4928

2.1861

1.5607

.63792

9,985

Residual

-.56129

1.17894

.00000

.57048

9,985

Std. Predicted Value

-1.674

.980

.000

1.000

9,985

Std. Residual

-.911

1.913

.000

.926

9,985

a. Predictors: (Constant), Information

b. Dependent Variable: Drugs

 

 

Chi-Square

Attributes

Observed

Expected

(O-E)

(O-E)2

(O-E)2/E

Frequency

Frequency

 

"O"

"E"

 

 

 

Completely Agree (CA)

4567

75.5

4491.5

20173572

267199.632

Somewhat Agree (SA)

1234

75.5

1158.5

1342122.3

17776.4536

Somewhat Disagree (SA)

1098

75.5

1022.5

1045506.3

13847.7649

Completely Disagree (CD)

690

75.5

614.5

377610.25

5001.46026

Total

                                     7,589

          30

 

       30,833

       303,825

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

Total

Proportion

Completely Agree (CA)

4567

7589

60.1792

Somewhat Agree (SA)

1234

7589

16.2604

Somewhat Disagree (SA)

1098

7589

14.4683

Completely Disagree (CD)

690

7589

9.0921

 

Analysis

ANOVA Test, Correlation Test, T-Test, Chi Square and Regression tests have been applied on the same analysis through the SPSS tool. From the regression analysis, it is found that the Sig F value is lower than that of 0.05, which is showing that null hypothesis has the change to be rejected. However, relying on a single test would not be a wise decision, therefore the result from mean and chi square has been taken into account and it is found from the chi square test the computed figure lies in the critical region, as the tabulated figure on degree of freedom (4) is 12.58, which means that null hypothesis should be rejected. T-Test is also showing the same result and reflecting that it would be effective for the analysis to reject the null hypothesis and alternatively accept the alternative hypothesis. From the analysis, it is found that there is a significant relationship is found among the fact that school has given enough information about drugs. It means people and children have been educated about the drinking and their problems as well, hence they have to listen to it. Almost 61% of the individuals are in the favor of this particular question and statement.

Other Findings

From this entire analysis, it is found that most of the people start smoking at the age of 15 and the main reason behind smoking was showing off in front of the other people. It is also examine that most of the times people go to pub for drinking and taking drugs while most of the time having cigarettes with their friends

 

 

 

Correlation Table and Comparable Mean

 

Information

Age and Consumption of Cigarettes, Drugs, Drinking

Helpful Information found from adults of Schools

Helpful Information found from adults of Family Members

Helpful Information found from adults of Youth Workers

Becoming Bore from a Single Drug

Information

1

 

 

 

 

 

Age and Consumption of Cigarettes, Drugs, Drinking

-0.08

1

 

 

 

 

Helpful Information found from adults of Schools

-0.08

0.85434

1

 

 

 

Helpful Information found from adults of Family Members

0.276

0.41993

0.32594

1

 

 

Helpful Information found from adults of Youth Workers

-0.03

0.00758

0.0331

-0.0087

1

 

Becoming Bore from a Single Drug

0.05

0.91191

0.85641

0.43823

0.0369

1

 

The relationship can be found from the above statistics. It is quite amazing that the relationship among scolding and educating from adults and youth workers has negative correlation, while family members have positive one.

 

References List

Barnes, P., Drazen, J., Rennard, S. and Thomson, N. (2008). Asthma and COPD. 1st ed. Burlington: Elsevier.

Der, G. and Everitt, B. (2013). Applied medical statistics using SAS. 1st ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Dittmer, D. and Krown, S. (2010). Molecular basis for therapy of AIDS-defining cancers. 1st ed. New York: Springer.

Fawcett, J. and McQueen, A. (2011). Perspectives on cancer care. 1st ed. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

Facts Ash (2014), Young People and Smoking, [Online], retrieved from http://ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_108.pdf  Accessed on 2014-Aug-19th 

Hansell, A. (2014). The environment and health atlas for England and Wales. 1st ed.

Health and Social Information Center (2013), Smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in England in 2012, [Online], retrieved from http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB11334/smok-drin-drug-youn-peop-eng-2012-repo.pdf Accessed on 2014-Aug-19th 

Hawe, E. (2007). Compendium of health statistics 2007. 1st ed. Abingdon: Radcliffe Publishing.

Hoffmann, T., Bennett, S. and Del Mar, C. (2010). Evidence based practice across the health professions. 1st ed. Sydney: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Iqbal, Z., Chambers, R. and Woodmansey, P. (2001). Implementing the National Service Framework for coronary heart disease in primary care. 1st ed. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical Press.

Maskell, N. and Millar, A. (2009). Oxford desk reference. 1st ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rassool, G. (2006). Dual diagnosis nursing. 1st ed. Oxford: Blackwell/Addiction Press.

The Information Center (2013), Smoking, drinking and drug use among young people in England in 2011, [Online], retrieved from http://www.natcen.ac.uk/media/176017/sddfull.pdf Accessed on 2014-Aug-19th 

The University of Edinburg (2012), A Review of Young People and Smoking in England

, [Online], retrieved from http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/files/8472628/PHRC_A7_08_Final_Report.pdf  Accessed on 2014-Aug-19th 

Woolfson, M. (2010). Materials, matter & particles. 1st ed. London: Imperial College Press.

 

 

 

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