Annotated Bibliography

Name of the student

 

 

Dyer, J. H., Gregersen, H. B., & Christensen, C. M. (2009). The innovator’s DNA. Harvard

Business Review, 87(12), 1–9.  doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5885.2012.00933_2.x

            In this study, the authors sought to find out how innovative individuals behave, and the character traits of an innovative mind. To do so, Dyer et al. (2009) carried out a six-year study with a view to unveiling the roots of disruptive and creative business strategies that innovative organizations have embraced. The researchers sought to assess how and when innovative entrepreneurs developed ideas upon which their businesses have been established. Specifically, Dyer et al. (2009) endeavored to determine the differences between innovative entrepreneurs and other entrepreneurs and executives. To do so, the researchers identified a total of 25 innovative entrepreneurs. In addition, the researchers also identified and surveyed 500 individuals and 3,000 executives who had either invented novel products or started innovative organizations. The study's research findings revealed interesting results. For example, it emerged that the top executives at most organizations take it as their responsibility to aid the innovative process, as opposed to initiating strategic innovations. On the other hand, top executives at the most innovative organizations do the creative work themselves.

            The study also revealed that the most creative senior executives tend to network, associate, experiment, question, and observe, and these five “discovery skills” sets them apart from the rest of the park. Innovative CEOs were also found to spend more time on these discovery skills in comparison with their counterparts without innovation traits. Collectively, these skills form what Dyer et al. (2009) call the innovator's DNA.

            This source is credible based on a number of reasons. First, the authors are authorities in the field of human resources management. All of them are university professors at their respective institutions of higher learning. Besides, the article provides practical and actionable ideas on how innovative individuals work.

Key words: Innovator's DNA, innovative organizations, disruptive technology, innovative entrepreneurs

Ekore, J. O., & Okekeocha, O. C. (2012). Fear of entrepreneurship among university graduates: A psychological analysis. International Journal of Management, 29(2), 515–524.  

            In this study, Ekore and Okekeocha (2012) note that although entrepreneurship remains a fascinating option to addressing the problem of unemployment among the youth, many university graduates are unwilling to embrace it as a viable career. This is the case even when such an opportunity presents itself. Ekore and Okekeocha (2012) note that this is a result of psychological factors that prevent or hinder the youth from viewing entrepreneurship as a viable or sought-after career option.  For these reasons, the authors sought to undertake a research study to determine if fear of failure in entrepreneurship was one of the psychological factors that hindered university graduates in Nigeria from embracing entrepreneurship. The researchers developed a special questionnaire that they administered to 1100 university graduates. Male respondents were more (729) than the female (371). The study's research findings revealed that core self-evaluation was one of the most key factors that impacted the respondent's fear of entrepreneurship. Other factors that predicted fear of entrepreneurship included attitude, pre-entrepreneurial intention, and capacity. The researchers, therefore, recommended that these psychological variables be taken into account while recruiting, training, and during placement of university graduates to engage in entrepreneurship. The source is easy to read and understand. In addition, it is well written and has used credible tools for data collection. Moreover, the research findings have helped to answer the research questions raised by the study.

Keywords: psychological aspects, new business enterprises, businesspeople- attitudes, self-evaluation

Hunter, M. (2012). On some of the misconceptions about entrepreneurship. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 7(2), 55–104.

            In this paper, Hunter (2012) seeks to shed light on some of the misconceptions that people have regarding the issue of entrepreneurship. Notably, Hunter (2012) states that the media has played a key role in fueling these misconceptions by painting entrepreneurship as a heroic and visionary activity. The article goes further to state how biographies, media coverage, and publicity have helped to glorify individual entrepreneurs, and this has only helped to increase public and government misconceptions regarding entrepreneurship. Accordingly, Hunter (2012) seeks to explore a number of the existing myths regarding entrepreneurship. In particular, the article examines applicable statistics and research. In addition, it also reveals a very different picture of entrepreneurship from the one that the general public has. In the paper, Hunter (2012) posits that entrepreneurship constitutes a very small part of the organization's lifecycle. He also postulates that start-up ventures generate limited innovation. More importantly, Hunter (2012) argues there are no specific qualities of an entrepreneur, and that majority of the new firms have a very small survival rate. He also suggests that most entrepreneurs are actually very risk-averse and that there are no secrets to success in business.  The ideas are given by Hunter (2012) are very encouraging to would-be entrepreneurs because he has helped to dispel the existing myths about entrepreneurship.

Key words: Entrepreneurship myths, new product development, risk-averse, high growth ambitions

Piva, E., Rentocchini, F., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2012). Is open-source software about innovation? Collaborations with the open-source community and innovation performance of software entrepreneurial ventures. Journal of Small Business Management, 50(2), 340–364. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-627X.2012.00356.x.

            Piva et al. (2012) endeavored to determine whether innovation is the driving force for open-source software. The authors have also explored a general assertion among practitioners that software entrepreneurial ventures that engage in open source software (OSS) collaborations are better placed to attain superior innovation performance. Scholars have nonetheless, never tested this statement. Accordingly, the study by Piva et al. (2012) seeks to fill this gap. The authors demonstrate that participation in OSS collaboration impacts positively on the innovation performance of venture entrepreneurs.  In addition, the researchers have also undertaken a stringent quantitative assessment of the innovation effects of the OSS collaborations.

            The article provides useful insights in regards to OSS collaboration and how it can have a positive impact on venture entrepreneurs. However, the paper is a bit technical for the average reader. In addition, the researchers have not provided data to show whether there are other benefits of open source software, besides innovation.

Keywords: open source software, collaboration, entrepreneurial ventures, innovation performance 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference List

Dyer, J. H., Gregersen, H. B., & Christensen, C. M. (2009). The innovator’s DNA. Harvard          Business Review, 87(12), 1-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5885.2012.00933_2.x

Ekore, J. O., & Okekeocha, O. C. (2012). Fear of entrepreneurship among university graduates:    A psychological analysis. International Journal of Management, 29(2), 515–524.  

Hunter, M. (2012). On some of the misconceptions about entrepreneurship. Economics,     Management, and Financial Markets, 7(2), 55–104.

Piva, E., Rentocchini, F., & Rossi-Lamastra, C. (2012). Is open-source software about innovation? Collaborations with the open source community and innovation performanceof software entrepreneurial ventures. Journal of Small Business            Management, 50(2), 340–364. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-627X.2012.00356.x.

 

 

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