Compare and contrast the cellular processes of mitosis and meiosis

 

 

Mitosis                                                                                                                 Meiosis

 

Both are kinds of cell divisions, which end up in the division of the cell into daughter cells (cytokinesis) but the mechanisms, kind of daughter cells and ultimate objective of the process differs. (Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis, n.d.)

 

Both processes involve dissolution of the nuclear membrane, division of the genetic material into two parts, cytokinesis and nuclear membrane reformation. (Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis, n.d.) (Meiosis and Mitosis- Meiosis, 2014)

 

Process of cell division that results in genetically identical daughter cells forming from a single parent cell.

 

(Mitosis and Meiosis n.d.) (Cell division, n.d.)

Process of division of a germ cell (sex cell predecessor) which gives rise to the formation of four daughter cells or gametes with half the number of chromosomes. (haploid cells)

 

(Mitosis and Meiosis n.d.)

Mitosis is a method of reproduction in single celled organisms.

 

In multicellular organisms, it takes place in the somatic cells of an organism and helps in vegetative growth as well as new tissue and organ formation.

(Mitosis and Meiosis, n.d.)

Exclusively used in sexually reproducing organisms, for the production of the sex cells or gametes. (Mitosis and Meiosis, n.d.)

It consists of a single set of events, which culminates in the production of two daughter cells, which are genetically identical.

 

 

It consists of two sets of cell divisions- Meiosis I and Meiosis II, at the end of which, production of four genetically dissimilar daughter cells takes places.

(Mitosis and Meiosis, n.d.)

The chromosome number and quality are retained in the daughter cells. Hence, they are considered to be clones

The chromosome number of the four daughter cells is half of the parent cell. In addition, there is a change in the composition of the chromosome, owing to a process called crossing over which occurs in Meiosis I. Hence all the daughter cells are different from parent cell.

(Mitosis and Meiosis, n.d.)

The phases of Mitosis consist of interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis.

 

 

Meiosis II is identical to Mitosis.

The major difference between mitosis and meiosis occurs in the metaphase I where the homologous chromosomes, pair up, undergo crossing over and form tetrads along the metaphase plate.

 

 

(Cell Division, Mitosis and Meiosis, n.d.)

 

 

Diagrams: (Meiosis and Mitosis- Meiosis, 2014)

 


 

 

References:

Diffen.com, (n.d.). Mitosis and Meiosis - Difference and Comparison | Diffen. [online] Available at: http://www.diffen.com/difference/Meiosis_vs_Mitosis [Accessed 20 Oct. 2014].

Faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu, (n.d.). Mitosis and Meiosis. [online] Available at: http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20laboratory/mitosis/mitosis.htm [Accessed 20 Oct. 2014].

Highered.mheducation.com, (n.d.). Comparison of Meiosis and Mitosis. [online] Available at: http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter11/comparison_of_meiosis_and_mitosis.html [Accessed 20 Oct. 2014].

Meiosis and Mitosis- Meiosis. (2014). Boundless. [online] Available at: https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/the-reproductive-system-27/meiosis-254/meiosis-and-mitosis-1238-11633/ [Accessed 20 Oct. 2014].

Uic.edu, (n.d.). Cell Division. [online] Available at: http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect16.htm [Accessed 20 Oct. 2014].

Www2.le.ac.uk, (n.d.). The cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis — University of Leicester. [online] Available at: http://www2.le.ac.uk/departments/genetics/vgec/schoolscolleges/topics/cellcycle-mitosis-meiosis [Accessed 20 Oct. 2014].

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