Designing and Architecture
The art of designing interiors and gathering knowledge about making the architecture a profession has taken several turns since the evolution of the artists and designers. Through this paper, four prominent artists have been researched and discussed along with the highlights about their specific and signature styles.
The first artist researched for the paper is a German-American architect named Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. He was born in the year 1886 in Germany and his early days were spent working in his father’s stone carving shop and also several local design firms. According to the analysis by The Art Story (2018), Mies helped in the establishment of the International Style as the definitive architectural language practiced in the North America’s modernism post-war. In addition to that, it has been his steel-and-glass aesthetic that became clearly associated as the archetype of the term ‘modern architecture’. Further, in the book by McVicar (2016) it has been stated that the art of internationalisation has been bound in the works by Mier wherein he often emphasised on the singularity of the buildings designed by him in relation with the surroundings and hence their transparency always on the view. For instance, Barcelona Pavilion has been found to be ideal for the public functions while on the other hand, Farnsworth House is notoriously difficult to inhabit in the cases when privacy is the top priority. The choice of materials for his designs was of a sensitive nature like in the case of Tugendhat House and Seagram Building, which though have been extremely expensive to build have been noted for the industrial methods of construction used. Due to his outstanding belief and works he was also awarded the AIA Gold Medal and is considered as the greatest architect of the 20th century.
The next designer in line is Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan who is a renowned Dutch painter and a theoretician. The Art Story analyses and comments that Piet believed in approaching the truth as closely as possible and for the same reasons he used abstract art to understand the fundamental quality of the object (2018). He believed that art reflected the underlying spirituality that the nature possesses and simplified his painting subjects to the most basic of the elements possible. He represented the world using the vertical and horizontal elements that included positive-negative, dynamic-static, and feminine-masculine. The paintings done by the artist have a clear reflection of the influence of different art movements inclusive of Luminism, Impressionisms and Cubism (The Art Story, 2018). The most important aspect to understand and validate is the use of geometric designs by Piet, which is based on the fact that he constantly shifted lines back and forth in order to obtain the results that felt right to him. However, at the same time he was focused on bringing forth the precise and pure expression through the application of idea and pictorial relationships (Stevanov and Zanker, 2017). Further, in the works by Dunne (2014) it has been highlighted that Piet has been able to put together the art in the form of lines and shapes that form geometric patterns and allow for the interplay in a surprising manner. For instance, Lozenge Composition with Four yellow Lines depicts nothing but how different lines can mix together to reveal a defined pattern.
Oscar Niemeyer, whose full name was Oscar Riberio de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho, from Brazil is considered to be the key figure in the who helped to improve the existing norms and brought in a host of changes in the area of modern architecture. He has gained recognition for the design of civic buildings for Brasilia, which is known as a planned city. He was most famous for the integration of abstract forms and curves in his designs and mentioned the influence and inspiration from Le Corbusier. He has also been known as the sculptor of monuments. In the works by Turkienicz and Mayer (2014) it has been brought forward that the designs by Oscar Niemeyer were based on the curved lines, as he felt that straight lines and angles are all man-made and the nature like mountains and rivers is defined by the curves that they possess. These curved surfaces as identified by him have been referred to as the free forms. He started from parabola and in the arc of circular circumference and expanded to rotation, translation, reflection, intersection, scaling and addition (Cogley et al., 2018). The fact that Niemeyer used classical rules of proportion are clearly visible in his works and define the modern architecture as observed and presented by him. One of the most powerful works done by him, Museum of Modern Art in Caracas is an inverted pyramid and means rising from the top of the cliff. It is all about the natural surroundings and natural beauty.
The fourth artist being discussed herein is remembered for his contribution to architectural functionalism and also for the success across the world related to his effective and simple chair designs. Arne Emil Jacobsen, a Danish architect and designer won a Danish Architect’s Association competition. He was given the award for designing the ‘House of the Future’, which composed of a garage, a boathouse, and also a helipad. Cation (2015) has mentioned that the most renowned and popular of his works have been the furniture products wherein the chairs have been the key. He designed the entire Royal Hotel starting from its architecture to its interiors and the fact that each of the public spaces in the hotel had a new style of chairs led to the invention of timeless and versatile pieces and had an enduring style. Christiansen and Gasparin (2016) verify that the innovative ideas in the world of architecture and design have always been met with controversies and so were the designs presented by Jacobsen in the initial days. However, with time, Jacobsen’s work has been recorded as the important and original contribution, which led to modernism. He is remembered for his sense of proportion and he himself admitted to the notion that proportion makes the monuments and buildings beautiful. In addition to furniture he has also been recognised for his interior designs inclusive of faucets and accessories not just for bathrooms but also kitchens.
Cation, S. (2015). INSIDE DESIGN: ARNE JACOBSEN. [online] styleathome. Available at: http://www.styleathome.com/decorating-design/design-experts/article/inside-design-arne-jacobsen [Accessed 9 Jul. 2018].
Cogley, B., Morris, A., Howarth, D., Griffiths, A., Mairs, J., Mairs, J., Winston, A. and Hobson, B. (2018). Oscar Niemeyer architecture | Dezeen. [online] Dezeen. Available at: https://www.dezeen.com/tag/Oscar-Niemeyer/ [Accessed 9 Jul. 2018].
Dunne, C. (2014). How Mondrian Became A Brand. [online] Fast Company. Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/3032858/how-mondrian-became-a-brand [Accessed 9 Jul. 2018].
McVicar, M. (2016). The production of the Commons: Mies van der Rohe and the art of industrial standardisation -ORCA. [online] Orca.cf.ac.uk. Available at: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/84483 [Accessed 9 Jul. 2018].
Stevanov, J. and Zanker, J. (2017). Exploring Mondrian Compositions in Three-dimensional Space. Leonardo, pp.1-11.
The Art Story. (2018). Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Overview and Analysis. [online] Available at: https://www.theartstory.org/artist-mies-van-der-rohe-ludwig.htm [Accessed 9 Jul. 2018].
The Art Story. (2018). Piet Mondrian Overview and Analysis. [online] Available at: https://www.theartstory.org/artist-mondrian-piet.htm [Accessed 9 Jul. 2018].
Turkienicz, B. and Mayer, R. (2014). Oscar Niemeyer Curved Lines: Few Words Many Sentences. Architecture and Mathematics from Antiquity to the Future, pp.389-405.